Disciplines of International Law

International law has, over the years, been categorized into three legal disciplines. The first discipline is public international law. It denotes a form of international law that governs or otherwise deals with the relationship between countries. There are various forms of public international law. They include international behavioural standards, treaty laws, international criminal laws, human rights laws, diplomatic laws, and environmental laws, among others. While public international law has various divisions, various principles govern all divisions of public international laws. These principles include the principle of human rights, the principle of human dignity, the principle of coordination, and mutuality. For instance, the principle of human dignity is often found in most public international laws. Most international laws that fall under this discipline aim at protecting universal values through the use or promotion of human dignity. Therefore, public international laws are the most famous forms of international law.u00a0

The second discipline of international laws is the private international laws. These are international laws that address questions dealing with the jurisdiction that may hear a given case or laws that apply in a given case depending on the jurisdiction. In retrospect, private international laws can be defined as international laws administered between private individuals of different nations or laws that govern certain cases. Their decision relies on the verdicts of private citizens of another state. These international laws are often developed by citizens of different nations that privately engage in transactions, thus developing laws that may be used in the event of a dispute. Unlike public international laws, private international laws are not prevalent.

The last discipline of international law is referred to as supranational law. It denotes international law used by supranational organizations entailing regional agreements where national laws may prove inapplicable. Supranational organizations are multinational unions or organizations in which countries lack authority over it, especially in regard to the internal facets or issues within the union or organization. However, in cases where countries act as members of such unions or organizations, only the members can participate in the decision-making processes. In retrospect, the laws or mandates of a given country do not apply to these organizations, thereby necessitating the need for supranational laws. Examples of supranational organizations are the European Union, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the United Nations. For instance, in the European Union, member countries get to vote on proposed policies that may affect each member state. Therefore, supranational law is a discipline of international laws that focus on laws that govern supranational organizations since they have limitations in terms of the national laws since individual countries lack jurisdiction over it.u00a0

Emmanuel Addo

Emmanuel Addo is the founder of the Young Global Leaders Network, an international non-governmental organization registered in six (6) countries namely, Ghana, United Kingdom, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, and South Sudan and has a membership strength of over 15,000 young black professionals, students, graduates, and aspiring leaders.

The organization also operates in 25 other African countries. Emmanuel also doubles as the chief convener and founder of the Young African Leaders Summit, one of the largest continental youth summits in Africa.  

Currently works at Kingston University as a Business Engagement Team Member in their Partnerships and Engagement Department. 

He characterizes energy, integrity, result-oriented, and ground-breaking service in each detail of strategic management, change management, stakeholder management, and leadership acquaintances.
Emmanuel owns a core background in Sociology and Psychology from the University of Ghana.

Leveraging his experience as a youth activist and a dynamic young man, Emmanuel founded the Young Global Leaders Network, a youth organization that comprises young diplomats, young politicians, and aspiring politicians, business/entrepreneurial business leaders with the aim of championing a mutual agenda for the African youth and promoting youth participation in governance as well as promoting entrepreneurial culture.
Emmanuel nurtures an environment of teamwork and has expertise in data collection and analysis as well as both quantitative and qualitative methods.

Emmanuel worked as an Associate Lecturer at the London College of Advanced Management where he delivered a wide range of business management courses that involved principles of marketing, leadership, operation management, and research methods. Emmanuel has always maintained high teaching and learning standards to ensure that his students’ stand out in academic achievements and successful progression. As a stout believer and passionate key player in volunteering; Emmanuel creates quality time to giving back gladly to his community what he has learned and to educate individuals with free consultancy on career development. He is a leader anyone would love to look up to and with great integrity, commitment, and passion to make the world a better place.
Emmanuel worked as Qualifications Manager at the Open University in the UK.

Emmanuel is also the founder of Kickstart Innovation Hub Ltd, the entrepreneurial hub of Young Global Leaders Network.